All You Need to Know About Contract Law in Nigeria

Contract law in Nigeria is aimed at guiding against the misuse or misapplication of the formation of a binding contract.

It also aimed at defining what a contract really is and based on this definition will every contract made be duly recognized by the law.

Contract law in Nigeria is one of the developments in the economic and legal reform of the Federal Government of Nigeria aimed at protecting the rights of the parties involved in business transactions.

Several other reforms such as the Law of Minerals and Mining Act. 2007 saw the regulator of the sector gaining powers to grant licenses, secure the tenure of licenses, and perform other duties related to minerals and mining matters in Nigeria.

These reforms including the establishment of the Nigerian Intellectual Property Commission (NIPCOM), to improve the efficiency in the management and administration of property matters in Nigeria, have led to significant improvements in the protection of the rights of parties involved in the business transactions in the case of breach, misinterpretation or unlawful disassociation from a contract.

This article provides a complete guide on contract law in Nigeria. It is meant to inform you of the legal principles guiding contracts and the entity of contract law in Nigeria.

 

What is Contract in Nigeria?

A contract is an agreement between two or more people, companies or organizations which creates obligations that are enforceable by the law. According to this definition, a contract can only exist when there is an agreement between both parties.

The law will not recognize mere agreements like a gratuitous promise as a contract and will not enforce such a contract when it is breached by one of the parties.

 

Classification of Contracts in Nigeria

Contracts are classified based on their uses and the parties involved. It is important to take note of this classification to ensure you take the right step when agreeing to a contract with any party.

 

Simple and Formal Contract

This is mostly done by individuals and it involves written documents signed by both parties and sealed. Examples of such contracts would be a party giving possession of its valuables or equipment to another party either on the agreement of instalment payment or for a fixed period of time.

 

Implied or Express Contract

It is not enforceable by law as it does not conform to the definition and the format that binds contracts under the contract law in Nigeria. Such a contract involves an agreement by the parties either in writing or oral agreement.

 

Bilateral Contract

This involves an exchange of promises.

 

Unilateral contract

It consists of the actual performance of an act in return for a promise.

 

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Elements of a Valid Contract in Nigeria

A contract can only be considered valid and enforceable by law if it follows the formats stated below.

 

Offer

An offer is the expression of a person’s readiness to enter into a contract on certain terms. The offer must be made with the intention which when accepted becomes binding on the parties.

An offer could be made expressly or implied. It could also be made to a particular person or the public, but this will depend on the type of contract that is to be agreed upon.

An offer differs from an invitation to treat as it is a clear and final declaration of readiness of a contracting party’s intention to enter into an agreement based on certain terms. An invitation to treat, on the other hand, is not considered “an offer” but simply an offer to negotiate.

The party making the offer is termed the “offeror” while the party to whom the offer is made is termed “the offeree”.

 

Acceptance

The contract is said to come into existence when the acceptance of the offer has been underscored. Acceptance is the final and unequivocal expression of the offeree in agreement to the terms of the offer as conveyed by the offeror.

For acceptance of an offer to be considered, it must be indicated by the offeree either in words, writing or conduct. Also, the mere intention to accept an offer does not constitute an acceptance.

The requirement of the type of communication acceptable as acceptance of an offer depends on the type of contract. In a bilateral contract, the actual communication of acceptance is necessary if the offer expressly requires it.

 

Consideration

If there is no consideration during the process of the contract, the contract is considered invalid even though there is an offer and there is an acceptance. Consideration is forbearance or benefit arising from an offer and an acceptance.

 

Intention to Create Legal Relations

The intention of creating legal relations is the binding seal on the contract that completely renders it valid and enforceable in a court of law. This is necessary to ensure that if the agreement is broken or breached, the party offended would be remedied in damages or by specific performance of the contract.

 

Remedies for Breach of Contract in Nigerian Law

A valid contract is enforceable in a court of law if there is a breach of contract by either of the parties involved. However, a contract can be discharged;

  • If the purpose of the contract has been fulfilled
  • By mutual rescission of the contract
  • By renunciation
  • By an amendment to existing laws originally binding the contract which make the purpose of the contract illegal

In Law, there are two most common remedies for breach of contract which are:

  1. Remedies for damages like compensatory damages, exemplary damages, punitive damages etc.
  2. In cases where monetary compensation would be inadequate or inappropriate, specific performance of the contract could be awarded to the offended party.

 

Wrap Up

Contract law only binds on valid contracts established based on the format stated by the Nigerian legal system. Such contracts are enforceable by the law and will only be considered if they adhere strictly to the format stated above. It is important to be conversant with the requirements of contract law in Nigeria before expressing the intention of agreeing to any contract.

 

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Lewis Ray

I am passionate about providing answers to the everyday questions Nigerians ask. I believe in one law; the law of price.

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